[By Request] Affect vs. Effect

As promised, in my last post, if you have a grammar/punctuation/spelling question, I will do my best to answer it.  Katie Leas took me at my word and asked me about Affect and Effect.  In most instances, you can follow this simple rule to keep your use of affect and effect on the straight and narrow.

Effect is a noun.¹
Affect is a verb.²

Now, this wouldn’t be the English language without exceptions to the rules.

  1. Effect can also be used as a verb.
  2. Affect can also be used as a noun.

Confused yet? Let’s tackle Affect as a Noun first.

Affect as a noun is used only in the realm of psychology. In that world, it’s used to describe an observed emotion or feeling in a patient.

Though the writer often exhibited feelings of paranoia, his therapist noted the affect was always heightened during November.

You’re not going to come across this sort of language too often, so you can file this away under “Things Worth Knowing I Need to Look Up If Ever I Stumble Across Them.”

Now, here’s where things get tricky.  If Effect can also be used as a verb, then how do you know which to use?  The difference is tricky and very much a matter of nuance.

Effect: to cause change
Affect: to influence

One way to remember this is that Effect as a Noun means a result.  So, if you’re using Effect as a Verb, whatever’s doing the effecting had better be causing some results.  If, on the other hand, the whatever in question isn’t necessarily the direct cause but is doing a bit of nudging, then Affect as a Verb.  Most of the sentences I see should be using Affect as a Verb, but, again, it’s a matter of nuance.  What exactly are you trying to say?  Effect as a Verb has a lot more denotative punch than Affect as a Verb, so use it wisely.

To conclude:

  • Affect as a Verb [to influence]: Reading these blog posts on grammar is really affecting the way I approach my writing.
  • Effect as a Verb [to cause]: By writing these blog posts, I hope to effect a change in the way people approach their writing.
  • Effect as a Noun [a result]: Reading these blog posts on grammar has really had an effect on the clarity of my writing.
  • Affect as a Noun [an observed emotion]: The writer often suffered delusions of megalomania, but writing those blog posts on grammar only seemed to intensify the affect.



[By Request] The Em Dash: Friend or Foe?

I hardly consider myself an expert on the art of writing.  I do my research, and I hope I keep improving, but I think there are simply too many methods, opinions and philosophies out there for anyone to ever truly become a bona fide, incontrovertible expert.

That being said, if there’s one thing I do pride myself on knowing, it’s grammar, spelling and punctuation.  I sacrificed my (semi) perfect eyesight in the pursuit of a nearly-error-free newspaper in college, and I still make a bit of extra income doing some freelance copyediting.

So, when my friends have a question about grammar, spelling or punctuation, they often come to me, and I am happy to help.  One such friend has requested I do a pre-NaNoWriMo post on Em Dashes.  I think she was witness to a bit of bantering that took place on twitter with fellow writer, one who happens to have a rather passionate love affair with the em dash.  I, on the other hand, have often expressed my hatred of that dastardly punctuation mark, due to major overuse in publications I copyedit.

That being said, there is a time and a place for an em dash.  When used properly, I actually can’t help but be charmed.  Because my degree is in journalism, I generally follow the Associated Press guidelines:

ABRUPT CHANGE: Use dashes to denote an abrupt change in thought in a sentence or an emphatic pause: We will fly to Paris in June — if I get a raise. Smith offered a plan — it was unprecedented — to raise revenues.
SERIES WITHIN A PHRASE: When a phrase that otherwise would be set off by commas contains a series of words that must be separated by commas, use dashes to set off the full phrase: He listed the qualities — intelligence, humor, conservatism, independence — that he liked in an executive.
ATTRIBUTION: Use a dash before an author’s or composer’s name at the end of a quotation: “Who steals my purse steals trash.” — Shakespeare.
WITH SPACES: Put a space on both sides of a dash in all uses except the start of a paragraph and sports agate summaries.

I also use an em dash if someone’s dialog is cut off.
“I just can’t help myself,” Kristin said.  “Em dashes are so —”
“Don’t say it,” Elizabeth interjected.  “I simply can’t bear it.”

So, as you can see, there really are plenty of instances where the em dash acts as a true friend.  There are even times when the em dash falls by the wayside in favor of the oft-misused ellipsis.
WRONG: “We’ll learn proper punctuation… some day.”
RIGHT: “We’ll learn proper punctuation — starting now!”

Often times, the use of an em dash is a judgment call.  When I’m proofing, most of my changes are from em dash to comma.  It’s easy to mistake an interjection for a simple nonessential clause.
Nonessential Clause: “National Novel Writing Month, or NaNoWriMo, is a time for both feats and follies.”
Interjection: “National Novel Writing Month — or, as I like to call it,  Writers Are Crazy Month — takes place every year in November.”

One hint to help your judgment in this sort of situation is to consider whether the language you’re offsetting needs any other punctuation marks.  If it does, the em dash might be the way to go.  If it doesn’t, consider a couple of commas instead.  Additionally, consider emphasis.  I like to save em dashes so they have more oomph when I do use them.  Em dashes draw more attention to something than commas, so keep that in mind.  Is this information simply a bit of extra detail?  Or do you want the reader to really catch sight of this essential tidbit?

In the end, it’s really going to be about what makes the most sense to you as a reader.  Don’t get too hung up on whether or not you’re using them correctly, especially on a first draft.  Do what feels right, and worry about the consequences later.  This is not always good advice for life, but it is good advice for writing.  Once you’re in editing mode, you can deal with the mess you’ve created.

The most important thing to remember whilst editing is to know what you don’t know (which, by the way, was the most valuable piece of information I learned in college).  Don’t be afraid to look things up or ask someone  for help — like me.  (See what I did there?)  For instance, even I, self-proclaimed Grammar Guru, cannot remember when to use lay or lie.  Someone could be pointing a gun at my head asking me which to use, and I’d be begging for an AP Stylebook.  And if it’s OK for me, it’s OK for you.  All right?  Good.

Hope that sheds some light on the em dash, the troublesome turncoat of the punctuation world.  If you have any other questions, leave me a comment, and I’ll do my best to find the answer for you.